First Women's Bank of California Collection
Women’s Museum of California Library & Archives
Guide to the First Women’s Bank of California Collection
Title: First Women’s Bank of California Collection
Accession Number: AC-047
Prepared by: Julie Hamon
Head Archivist: Julia Friedman
Date Acquired: July 12, 2018
Date Processed: August 23, 2018
Location: Women’s Museum of California, San Diego, CA
Language: Collection material is in English
Extent: One box
Access Restrictions: Open to research
Use Restrictions: None
The First Women’s Bank of California was a small bank located in West Los Angeles, California, that was in operation from 1976 to 1984. The Bank’s founders and board members included primarily financial professionals, as well as a handful of celebrities interested in the Bank’s mission of creating a financial institution led by a women majority. While some say the purpose of the Bank was purely for business, others focus on the purpose of making a bank that was more accessible to women. Either way, the Bank advertised to and served both men and women clients. The First Women’s Bank of California was one of a number of women’s banks popping up around the United States at the time, and one of a handful established in California. The First Women’s Bank of California was a force to be reckoned with in Los Angeles industry: it created and hosted educational programs, revamped its marketing strategies, reached out to the community for business and collaboration, and had a number of famous clients and stockholders (including Jane Fonda, Farrah Fawcett, and others). The First Women’s Bank of California was purchased by Griffins Holding, Inc. in 1984 and renamed the Guaranty Bank of California. Today, it is the GBC International Bank.
Brief History of the First Women’s Bank of California Collection, and Women’s Banks Throughout the United States
The First Women’s Bank of California was validated by the state of California in 1974, and was later opened in West Los Angeles on November 15, 1976. The majority of news coverage agrees that the Bank was founded on the idea that women needed better access to their finances, and a better chance at establishing lines of credit free from traditional prejudice. Despite this special focus, according to Banking, the word “Women’s” in the title of the First Women’s Bank of California and other women’s banks was primarily based upon the institutions’ majority leadership by businesswomen. The First Women’s Bank of California assembled and operated in this manner, serving Los Angeles for eight years.
During those years, the Bank operated at the hands of a number of important leaders. Rowan Henry was the first President of the bank, and was later succeeded by Lynda Fluent. Notable members of the Bank include its Director Helene Beck, and its President of the Board and Director Gladys Fogel. Each of these members, in addition to many others, holds an important presence in the Helene Beck’s collection donated to the Women’s Museum of California.
The First Women’s Bank of California was very active in reaching out to the community: for example, it wanted to expand its business through the creation of a Shareholder program, as well as educate the community on better banking practices. A significant way the Bank expanded its reach was through its establishment of a Seminar program and a Seminar Committee; an educational program meant to teach those interested in financial practices. Extensive news coverage exists on the programs the Bank both hosted and sponsored. According to a January 1978 Los Angeles Times article, the First Women’s Bank of California set up a “...five-week lecture series...” on managing finances. In 1980, the Bank’s President Lynda Fluent spoke at a conference for women looking to propel their businesses and careers. The hope was for the First Women’s Bank of California’s Seminar Program to educate individuals while simultaneously promoting the Bank.
The First Women’s Bank of California and other American women’s banks were garnering a significant amount of enthusiasm and support. With time comes change, however, and the women’s banks began to consider alternate routes for the future in order to maintain and expand their businesses. The argument exists that as legal perspectives on women and banking changed—and anti-sexism banking laws were established—the need for women-targeted banks may have decreased. In terms of the names of the banks, some argued that the word “Women” in the titles may have deterred some prospective customers. Eventually, a number of the banks became less gendered, many editing their titles. This was the case for the First Women’s Bank of California, which in 1984 became the Guaranty Bank of California, and later the GBC International Bank. 
Despite these changes in the women’s banks and the varied sentiments towards those businesses, one thing that is agreed upon is that women’s banks were especially dedicated to all of their customers. It’s a sentiment that one comes across repeatedly in the First Women’s Bank of California collection here at the Women’s Museum of California. The First Women’s Bank of California clearly demonstrated this mindset, particularly by researching and employing anti-discriminatory banking practices and extending their definition of inclusivity: in addition to the Bank’s educational programs and support of women customers, the Bank implemented a program to make the Bank more accessible to individuals with disabilities.
The First Women’s Bank of California—and the emergence of women’s banks as a whole—tapped into a topic that is still discussed at length today. Two 2018 articles in the journal Family Business bear titles such as “Women & wealth: Be Prepared!,” and, “Women, Wealth, & Wisdom: What Women Should Be Asking Their Professional Advisors,” The journal explains that a number of women still do not access their families’ personal finances, and thus offers up advice on how these women can change that trend. The First Women’s Bank of California and its contemporaries addressed these types of issues over forty years ago, and as a result started an important discussion about women and financial accessibility. The First Women’s Bank of California was an important institution, demonstrating this not only through its daily operations and its outreach, but also in its acting as a catalyst for the ongoing discussion about women and their relationship to the financial realm.
Summary of the Collection
The First Women’s Bank of California collection provides an in-depth look at every aspect of the Bank: its creation, its growth, its members, and its role as a primarily women-run bank in the late 1970’s and early 1980’s. The collection is comprised of one box filled with ten series of items, donated to the Women’s Museum of California by the Bank’s former Director, Helene Beck. These items include, (but are not limited to), informational texts on banking, media snippets about women in business, colorful brochures, progress reports on the First Women’s Bank of California, marketing strategies, and personal letters written between the First Women’s Bank of California’s board members. The collection provides the chance for a researcher to understand the foundations, inner workings, and relationships within the bank, while also gaining a perspective on the Bank’s presence as a revolutionary financial institution in the Los Angeles area. The collection demonstrates the bank’s desire to grow and compete, to function efficiently, and to create a better banking world for its customers.
Container List: Box and Folder Material
Series 1: Legal Foundations
Series 1: Box 1: Folder 1: Legal Establishment of the Bank
Series 1: Box 1: Folder 2: Bank Bylaws, Rules, & Regulations
Series 1: Box 1: Folder 3: Information on Legal Banking Practice
Series 1: Box 1: Folder 4: Insurance Policies
Series 2: Development & Progress
Series 2: Box 1: Folder 1: Business Strategies & Plans
Series 2: Box 1: Folder 2: Progress Reports
Series 2: Box 1: Folder 3: Intra-Bank Correspondence
Series 2: Box 1: Folder 4: Collaborative Correspondence Between The First Women’s Bank of California and Other Companies/Individuals/Government
Series 2: Box 1: Folder 5: The First Women’s Bank of California Shareholders
Series 3: The First Women’s Bank of California Leaders & Employees
Series 3: Box 1: Folder 1: Helene Beck, Former Director & Lynda Fluent, Former President
Series 3: Box 1: Folder 2: The First Women’s Bank of California Board
Series 3: Box 1: Folder 3: Other First Women’s Bank of California Employees & Résumés
Series 3: Box 1: Folder 4: Directories
Series 4: Promoting the Bank
Series 4: Box 1: Folder 1: Promotional Correspondence with Clients
Series 4: Box 1: Folder 2: Marketing Plans
Series 4: Box 1: Folder 3: Promotional Events & Materials
Series 5: Daily Operations
Series 5: Box 1: Folder 1: Bank Forms
Series 5: Box 1: Folder 2: Information for Clients & Employees
Series 5: Box 1: Folder 3: Procedures for Employees
Series 6: Special Programs & Committees
Series 6: Box 1: Folder 1: Comprehensive Committee Lists
Series 6: Box 1: Folder 2: Seminar Program & Committee
Series 6: Box 1: Folder 3: Audit Committee
Series 6: Box 1: Folder 4: Other Bank Committees
Series 6: Box 1: Folder 5: Disabled Customers & Employees Plan
Series 6: Box 1: Folder 6: Retreats
Series 6: Box 1: Folder 7: Miscellaneous Meeting Materials
Series 7: Staying Informed on Better Banking
Series 7: Box 1: Folder 1: Information on Banking Practices
Series 8: Information on the Competition
Series 8: Box 1: Folder 1: Brochures & Booklets
Series 9: Women in Finance and Business
Series 9: Box 1: Folder 1: Newspaper Clippings
Series 9: Box 1: Folder 2: Magazines, Brochures, & Booklets
Series 10: Miscellaneous
Series 10: Box 1: Folder 1: Mixed Items
Series 10: Box 1: Folder 2: Community Contact Lists
Scope and Contents of the Materials
Series 1: Box 1
Series 1 contains important documents covering the establishment of the First Women’s Bank of California. The series includes an important 1974 document from the Office of the Secretary of State of California approving and registering the name of the First Women’s Bank of California, with a number of the Bank’s board members and state officials signing off on the establishment. There is a document covering the lease of the First Women’s Bank of California’s location, as well as a loan agreement between Bank of America and the the First Women’s Bank of California’s board members. Series 1 also contains a file that features an outline of the Bank’s registration with the I.R.S.
Series 1 is also comprised of the full packet of bylaws of the First Women’s Bank of California and extensive amendments to the bylaws. One can find a document outlining the organization of the bank’s members and their respective roles, as well as documents to be signed for the “Oath of the Director.” The full “Loan Policy” of the First Women’s Bank of California is included, providing a further sense of the bank’s structure, asset organization, and certain members’ responsibilities and interactions with clients.
Continuing on, Series 1 holds a contemporary record of the passing of laws that had an impact on banking practices. The Bank’s legal advisors provided letters outlining new laws and regulations in finance. Related documents cover laws such as the Equal Credit Opportunity Act, The Foreign Corrupt Practices Act, The Revenue Act of 1978, and other regulations concerning banks, their services, and internal organization. In this series, one can witness the First Women’s Bank of California’s reception to these developments, particularly through records of meetings regarding those topics.
Another aspect of the Bank’s establishment is the various types of insurance policies associated with the Bank. There is a booklet from the California Bankers Association outlining health insurance for employees, as well as a folder from the Equitable Life Assurance Society containing contact information and brochures emphasizing the importance of life insurance, income insurance, home insurance, and social security. Much of this information has a tone seemly directed towards women. Last but no least, Series 1 holds the Summary of the “Directors & Officers Liability” insurance plan for the First Women’s Bank of California.
Series 2: Box 1
Series 2 features proposals for The First Women’s Bank of California’s growth. There is a speech given at a 1975 banking conference outlining technologies and tips for better banking. There is correspondence regarding the Bank’s goals for 1982, and a fill-in template for planning for those goals.
Series 2 also holds an important collection of the First Women’s Bank of California’s Annual Reports, starting in 1976 and ending in 1981. They illustrate the Bank’s growth and losses, and, most of all, how a small bank operates. There is correspondence addressing the Bank’s obstacles and suggestions for addressing those issues. There are other administrative reports as well, one of them specifically regarding the Bank’s parking situation. There are year-end reports outlining the financial situations of both the First Women’s Bank of California and the women’s banks in other states, most likely for comparison’s sake.
Series 2 holds a variety of both formal and informal correspondence letters amongst the Bank’s leading members and employees. Some letters make announcements from board members to the entire staff of the Bank, while a number of letters between board members address issues within and plans for the Bank. These letters range from typewritten letters to handwritten drafts on scratch paper. Others are handwritten letters still in their envelopes, that were at one point sent in the mail. These types of letters specifically involve a fairly even mix of bank business and personal anecdotes, revealing the tone of friendship amongst the Bank’s leaders. Some letters take on an urgent and candid tone, pinpointing business matters to resolve.
Series 2 contains correspondence between members of the First Women’s Bank of California and other companies, individuals, and government organizations. These letters range from “thank you” notes to discussions about business ventures. A number of letters address legal information for the Bank and the financial state of the Bank. One set of letters demonstrates the Bank’s educational interaction and mentorship with local women finance students. The Bank, California state, and the Los Angeles city government exchanged letters about laws pertaining to banking, as well as collaborative efforts.
An important development for the First Women’s Bank of California was its Shareholder program. Series 2 covers this development through its collection of documents addressing this program. These documents are mostly letters, mainly sent from the Bank to its existing and prospective shareholders. There are business plans for recruiting shareholders, information on a shareholding plan for Bank employees, as well as an invitation to a shareholders’ meeting.
Series 3: Box 1
Series 3 contains a bit of information on two women that were central to the function and success of the First Women’s Bank of California. Helene Beck is the former Director of the Bank, and is the individual who donated this collection to the Women’s Museum of California. Series 3 includes some documents providing a glimpse into her role as Director of the Bank, and her role in the community. There are questionnaires geared towards developing management skills, evaluations for workshops, and an interesting Director’s “self-evaluation” sheet. The file contains documents outlining the “Qualifications” for a Director of the First Women’s Bank of California. There is an invitation to she and her husband to attend a benefit gala for The Women’s Guild, as well as other inquiries. These documents paint a picture of Helene Beck’s dedication to the Bank and her performance as Director. Within series 3, there is also information on Lynda Fluent, the former President of the First Women’s Bank of California. The file contains her résumé, as well as a letter in which she outlines her conditions for working at the Bank. There is a document outlining her background and achievements, and thus illustrating her level of qualification to be President of the First Women’s Bank of California. Series 3 also features printouts of a May 2003 Google search (most likely conducted by Helene Beck) about Lynda Fluent.
To provide a more comprehensive understanding of the members of the First Women’s Bank of California, Series 3 contains documents pertaining to the Bank’s Board of Directors. These documents include attendance lists for Board meetings, goal outlines for those meetings, and tips for conducting effective meetings. These documents reveal the size of the Board, its organization, and the types of subjects it addressed.
Series 3 contains an extensive collection of résumés submitted to the First Women’s Bank of California. These documents illustrate the diverse backgrounds, ages, educations, and professional banking experiences of the both male and female applicants. This proliferation of applications shows a keen interest and enthusiasm for the Bank. Series 3 also contains summaries of hired bank employees and board members. In addition, the Series features May 2003 Google searches (again, most likely conducted by Helene Beck) of Ronya Kozmetsky: former board member of the Bank and later founder of The Ronya Kozmetsky Institute for the Future. There are records of Google searches of the First Women’s Bank, articles on additional colleagues of the Bank, and an obituary. Particularly interesting to find in Series 3 are Human Resource-type documents outlining an employee’s response to her termination, as well as a doctor’s note on the medical conditions of an employee.
Series 3 provides directories to the Bank’s employees. These documents include the employees’ professional titles, contact information, and phone number extensions.
Series 4: Box 1
Series 4 contains an extensive collection of letters written by Helene Beck to Bank clients and customers. The letters serve to promote the Bank and entice individuals, companies, and community groups to use its services. The letters describe the welcoming tone of the bank, often praise president Lynda Fluent, outline account plans, and explain how the Bank can compete with its financial neighbors. A number of the letters feature rhetoric on the role of women in the Bank, and how customer’s support of the Bank encourages the uplifting of women in business. Helene. Beck preserved a handful of responses from clients: responses that additionally provide an idea of the types of customers to whom the Bank reached out, as well as their level of receptivity.
Series 4 holds a collection of documents that cover the Bank’s marketing and promotional projects. There are a number of correspondence and informational documents pertaining to Dahlstein & Associates, the women-led consulting firm that worked with the First Women’s Bank of California to promote the Bank. While a significant amount of Series 4 covers Dahlstein & Associates, there is also correspondence with a handful of other businesses proposing plans and generating reports for the Bank. These include the UCLA Graduate School of Management, Carl Terzian Associates, and Dreyer and Associates. The series contains an extensive marketing report for the Bank, demonstrating careful planning for the company’s promotion. Brochures on advertising agencies were collected as well.
Series 4 is also comprised of an interesting mix of promotional materials for the Bank. There are print advertisements, a radio commercial schedule and script, a 1976 press release for a Bank conference, and an October 1981 “Media Memo” announcing the Bank’s fifth anniversary. These documents give perspective on the Bank’s conscious efforts to advertise its successes and goals. Series 4 also contains an interesting group of six posters advertising the Bank.
Series 5: Box 1
In Series 5, one can find a number of First Women’s Bank of California forms. These include loan applications, tax forms, transfer forms, personal financial statements, and “New Business” forms. These are the types of forms customers and employees would have filled out on a daily basis at the bank.
In addition, Series 5 holds a number of documents outlining basic banking policies and information for customers’ and employees’ reference. The information includes The First Women’s Bank of California’s policies on loans and accounts. There is criteria on determining a customer’s eligibility for credit, and an outline of all the Bank’s fees. A particularly interesting section of Series 5 is the collection of tips and procedures for the First Women’s Bank of California’s employees to follow. The advice ranges from appropriate dress to the Bank’s detailed safety and security measures. In addition to these documents is a variety of resources outlining business strategies for those working in customer service. Once can see how these documents could have helped tailor a certain look, attitude, and approach to banking. When it comes to the subject of women and safety, one document is particularly resonant: titled “Be Smart, Docents!,” this piece outlines safety measures to avoid harassment and attacks.
Series 6: Box 1
Series 6 contains information on the various committees within the First Women’s Bank of California. There are a number of documents outlining the committees and their respective members: The Executive Committee, Loan Committee, Investment Committee, Audit Committee, Personnel Committee, Marketing Committee, Building and Site Committee, Public Relations Committee, and the Board of Directors. These particular documents list the committees’ meeting schedules.
An additional committee well-documented by the First Women’s Bank of California is the Bank’s Seminar Committee. Series 6 documents show that the Bank created a Seminar Program, which was an educational program set up for professionals and students to learn about better banking, with the hope that this will promote the First Women’s Bank. The documents break down the mission of the program and its prices, as well as record meeting discussions surrounding the Seminar Program.
Series 6 covers another important event and committee for the First Women’s Bank of California: the Audit Committee. The Series contains official examination reports, meeting materials and records, correspondence, informational booklets, a newspaper clipping about auditing, questionnaires and checklists, and informal notes. The information covered by these materials demonstrates the Bank’s preparatory methods for its audit, and thus the detailed results of the audit. Documents record the work and correspondence amongst the Bank, auditing agencies, and the state government.
Series 6 also contains minutes and agendas from the meetings of smaller bank committees. The documents pertain specifically to the Executive Committee, the Personnel Committee, the Business Development & Education Committee, and the Public Relations, Advertising, and Promotion Committee. These documents address topics such as business plans, human resources, the Board, special events, et cetera. Another particularly interesting component of Series 6 is the minutes of a 1980 meeting held amongst the “Presidents of Women’s Banks,” which sheds light on the collaboration and alliance amongst women financial leaders. In addition, Series 6 educates on the First Women’s Bank of California’s developments in its accessibility program for customers and employees with disabilities. The series contains descriptions of the Bank’s accessible services, information on the California “Governor’s Committee for Employment of the Handicapped,” and a folder containing information on the film “A Different Approach.” These documents further demonstrate the inclusive nature of the First Women’s Bank of California.
Along with these categorized items is a collection of miscellaneous meeting materials. The materials in this group include tips and guidelines for running committee meetings, minutes of a city council meeting in Merriam, Kansas, a speech by the chairman of the Consumer Product Safety Commission, and a questionnaire. These documents further suggest the First Women’s Bank of California’s awareness of political discourse on a larger scale, as well as a desire to better facilitate productive discussions.
Series 7: Box 1
Series 7 features additional resources on banking practices that the First Women’s Bank of California may have used for reference. This Series includes pamphlets and booklets about the Fair Credit Billing law, the Equal Credit Opportunity Act, and credit rights for women. There is tax information for investors, booklets on the role of bank Directors, a description of a portfolio management company, as well as a packet about writing bank codes. These materials are helpful in understanding how to best set up a bank, some of the expectations of its leaders, and a bank’s reception to legal developments in finance. The Series offers an understanding of the business climate at the time of the First Women’s Bank of California’s existence.
Series 8: Box 1
Series 8 contains a wealth of information on other banks and financial organizations, primarily located throughout Los Angeles and Southern California. The series is comprised of booklets, pamphlets, flyers, and a survey analyzing other banks’ services and locations. The bank most prominently featured in the series is Bank of America. However, the information available on the smaller, local banks is helpful in that it provides a helpful idea of the comparable types of institutions with which the First Women’s Bank of California competed.
Series 9: Box 1
Series 9 contains an enlightening collection of newspaper clippings from the time of the Bank’s existence that discuss women in business. The articles and advertisements address both the successes and struggles of businesses run by women, and what women financial experts and professionals have to say about finance. Women’s banks are the main focus, and the First Women’s Bank of California is either featured in or the star of a handful of newspaper articles. Another leading subject of the newspaper clippings is the First Women’s Bank of New York.
Series 9 also holds an extensive collection of brochures, a magazine, and packets on women in the business and finance world. Many of the documents offer advice and outline services benefiting women in business, and highlight important women leading their own companies (including advertising, banks, and women’s advocacy groups). Important companies mentioned are Women In Business, the Women’s Referral Services, the National Association of Women Business Owners, and the First Women’s Bank of New York. The Series’ September 1977 edition of British Airways High Life features a cover story discussing the prominent President, Lynn D. Salvage, of the First Women’s Bank of New York.
Series 10: Box 1
Series 10 includes a mix of miscellaneous items including letters, newspaper clippings, and brochures. The documents feature information on Los Angeles institutions and companies, such as the Cultural Heritage Foundation, Music Center of Los Angeles County, Universal City Studios, UCLA’ International Student Center, and UCLA’s Center for the Continuing Education of Women. Some documents discuss miscellaneous community and media events as well.
In addition to these materials, Series 10 contains an extensive list of addresses for Los Angeles businesses. Looking closely at the way the text of these addresses is contained in softly outlined frames, it is very possible that these documents are photocopies of address sticker-label sheets. This suggests that the First Women’s Bank of California’s correspondence may have had an extensive reach.
 "Bank for Women to Bow Monday," Los Angeles Times (1923-1995), November 14, 1976, WS11, ProQuest Historical Newspapers (accessed August 13, 2018).
 Toledo Blade, “Last of 3 ‘Women’s Banks’ in California Alters Identity,” Toledo Blade, August 23, 1984, 40, https://news.google.com/newspapers?nid=1350&dat=19840823&id=Ym0xAAAAIBAJ&sjid=xAIEAAAAIBAJ&pg=5502,4071290 (accessed August 13, 2018).
 Jenny Tesar, “Anti-discriminatory women’s banks: one even has a man president,” Banking 69, no. 10, (October 1977): 66-67, 72, 77, Business Source Complete, EBSCOhost (accessed August 13, 2018).
 Virginia Lee Warren, "When a Bank Run by Women Opens, The Reason Is Not Always Feminism," The New York Times, September 17, 1975, https://www.nytimes.com/1975/09/17/archives/when-a-bank-run-by-women-opens-the-reason-is-not-always-feminism.html (accessed August 13, 2018).
 Tesar, “Anti-discriminatory women’s banks,” 66-67, 72, 77.
 First Women’s Bank of California, “If You Think First Women’s Bank Is Just for Women, Think Again,” Advertisement, 1982.
 Tesar, “Anti-discriminatory women’s banks,” 72.
 Weekly World News, "Top Actresses Run a Unique Bank for Women Customers," 40.
 Toledo Blade, “Last of 3 ‘Women’s Banks’ in California Alters Identity,” 40.
 “First Women’s Bank Gets State Approval,” Los Angeles Times (1923-1995), August 23, 1974, D19, ProQuest Historical Newspapers (accessed August 13, 2018).
 "Bank for Women to Bow Monday,” WS11.
 Tesar, “Anti-discriminatory women’s banks,” 66-7, 77.
 Tesar, “Anti-discriminatory women’s banks,” 66-7.
 Tesar, “Anti-discriminatory women’s banks,” 66-7, 72, 77.
 First Women’s Bank of California, Marketing, “Media Memo Draft,” news release, West Los Angeles, California, October 2, 1981.
 “Bank for Women to Bow Monday.”
 Weekly World News, “Top Actresses Run a Unique Bank for Women Customers,” 40.
 “Bank for Women to Bow Monday.”
 “Memorandum: Re: Offering and Sale of Securities/Solicitation of Shareholders,” Anita Yallowitz Wolman to Board of Directors of the First Women’s Bank of California, December 11, 1979, Rosen, Wachtell & Gilbert Law Offices, Los Angeles, California.
 “The First Women’s Bank of California Seminar Program,” Letter from the Seminar Committee, The First Women’s Bank of California, West Los Angeles, California.
 “The First Women’s Bank of California Seminar Program.”
 "WOMEN'S BANK SETS FINANCE LECTURES," Los Angeles Times (1923-1995), January 5, 1978, F10, ProQuest Historical Newspapers (accessed August 13, 2018).
 “Seminar Offered to Businesswomen,” Los Angeles Times (1923-1995), February 14, 1980, H22, ProQuest Historical Newspapers (accessed August 13, 2018).
 “The First Women’s Bank of California Seminar Program.”
 Page Mailliard and Ken Anderson, “Women’s Banks and Women’s Access to Credit: Competition Between Marketplace and Regulatory Solutions to Gender Discrimination,” Loyola of Los Angeles Law Review no. 3 (1987): 771-794, at 772-73, General OneFile, EBSCOhost (accessed August 13, 2018).
 Ann Crittenden, “WOMEN’S BANKS: AN IDEA WHOSE ALLURE HAS FADED; by Ann Crittenden,” New York Times, Late Edition (East Coast), August 4, 1980, B.6, https://search.proquest.com/docview/423969342?accountid=10932 (accessed August 13, 2018).
 Ann Crittenden, “WOMEN’S BANKS: AN IDEA WHOSE ALLURE HAS FADED; by Ann Crittenden,” B.6.
 Crittenden, “WOMEN’S BANKS: AN IDEA WHOSE ALLURE HAS FADED,” B.6.
 Page Mailliard and Ken Anderson, “Women’s Banks and Women’s Access to Credit,” 772-73.
 Crittenden, “WOMEN’S BANKS: AN IDEA WHOSE ALLURE HAS FADED,” B.6.
 Toledo Blade, “Last of 3 ‘Women’s Banks’ in California Alters Identity,” 40.
 GBC International Bank, “History.”
 Crittenden, “WOMEN’S BANKS: AN IDEA WHOSE ALLURE HAS FADED,” B.6
 First Women’s Bank of California. “If You Think First Women’s Bank Is Just for Women, Think Again.”
 Helene Beck, 1978, Speech by Director Helene Beck Announcing the First Women’s Bank of California’s Handicap Services, First Women’s Bank of California, West Los Angeles.
 Caro U. Rock, “Women & wealth: Be prepared!,” Family Business 29, no. 1 (January/February 2018): 6, Business Source Complete, EBSCOhost (accessed August 13, 2018).
 Diane K. Doolin, “Women, Wealth & Wisdom: What Women Should Be Asking their Professional Advisors,” Family Business 29, no. 1, (January/February 2018): WM5-WM6, Business Source Complete, EBSCOhost (accessed August 13, 2018).
 Caro U. Rock, “Women & wealth: Be prepared!,” 6.